## NFL theorems - variants of old insight: most strings x of a certain size are incompressible.

## That is, for most pairs of task descriptions (x,y): x does not convey any information about y. Assume uniform distribution on all tasks of a certain size: algorithm for solving random x usually no good for y.

## But most real-world tasks are related! Uniform distributions are very special atypical cases.

## Universal means: works optimally for all distributions.

## OOPS exploits algorithmic task dependencies where possible, but does not perform miracles!

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