Figure 14: Science Nobel Prizes 1901-2009:
Evolution of cumulative national shares by country of birth.
Countries are ordered from upper left
to lower right corner by
the year their first laureate received a Nobel Prize fraction.
The vertical width of a nation's colored
band at each year measures its percentage of all Nobel Prizes in the sciences (physics, chemistry, medicine)
up to that year (image height = 100%).
German-born laureates were ahead during the first three quarters of the century;
in 1976 US-born laureates took over.
Note the substantial differences
to the citizenship-based ranking,
reflecting brain drain from Germany and other countries to the US (and also the UK).
From Evolution of National Nobel Prize Shares in the 20th Century,
Jürgen Schmidhuber, 2010. PDF. HTML.